The Basic Structure and Working Principle of RFID Technology
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is wireless communication technology. The RFID system does not need to be in contact with the measured object and recognizes the measured object through radio signals. The following is a detailed introduction to the basic structure and working principle of RFID technology.
The most basic radio frequency identification system consists of the following components.
1. Electronic label
The electronic tag stores the information of the measured object, and it is usually placed on the measured object. The reader can read the information stored in the electronic tag without contacting the electronic tag. The electronic tag has a built-in antenna, and its function is to communicate with the radio frequency antenna.
Electronic tags can be divided into two types: active electronic tags and passive electronic tags. Passive electronic tags can obtain energy through the electromagnetic field generated by the recognizer during the identification process; active electronic tags can independently emit radio signals.
2. RFID Reader
The reader is one of the main components of the radio frequency identification system. The reader can also be called a reader. It can not only read the electronic label information but also write the processed data into the electronic label. Both the distance of the radio frequency identification and the working frequency band of the radio frequency identification system have a direct impact on the frequency of the reader.
Therefore, the reader occupies an important position in the RFID system and plays an important role. There are two coupling types for the RF signal between the reader and the electronic tag:
(1) Inductive coupling
According to the law of electromagnetic induction, the electromagnetic field generated by frequency alternating in space is used to realize inductive coupling. This kind of coupling is generally suitable for short-range radio frequency identification systems operating at medium and low frequencies. Its recognition distance is less than 1 meter, and the common range of action is 10-20 cm.
(2) Electromagnetic backscatter coupling
Using the law of electromagnetic wave propagation in space, when the emitted electromagnetic wave touches the measured object, the information-carrying the measured object is reflected back. This coupling is suitable for long-distance radio frequency identification systems that operate at high frequencies and microwaves. Its recognition distance is greater than 1 meter, and the common range of action is 3 to 10 meters.
The basic working principle of RFID technology is not complicated: after the tag enters the magnetic field, it receives the radio frequency signal sent by the reader. Then use the energy obtained by the induced current to send the product information (passive tags or active tags) stored in the chip to the central information system, and perform related data processing.
A complete RFID system is composed of a reader and an electronic tag, which is a so-called transponder, and an application software system. Its working principle is that the reader emits radio wave energy of a specific frequency to drive the circuit The internal data is sent out, and then the Reader will receive and interpret the data in order and send it to the application for corresponding processing.
From the perspective of the communication and energy-sensing methods between the RFID card reader and the electronic tag, it can be roughly divided into two types: inductive coupling and backscatter coupling. Generally, low-frequency RFID mostly adopts the first method, while higher-frequency RFID mostly adopts the second method.
The reader can be a read or read/write device according to the structure and technology used, and it is the information control and processing center of the RFID system. The reader usually consists of a coupling module, a transceiver module, a control module, and an interface unit. The reader and the transponder generally use half-duplex communication to exchange information, and the reader provides energy and timing for passive responses through coupling.
In practical applications, management functions such as the collection, processing, and remote transmission of object identification information can be further realized through Ethernet or WLAN guide. The transponder is the information carrier of the RFID system, and most of the transponder is a passive unit composed of a coupling element (coil, microstrip antenna, etc.) and a microchip.
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